The Mi’kmaq, Maliseet (Wolastoqiyik), and Passamaquoddy peoples of what would become New Brunswick did not have a culture of writing, meaning that they relied on oral storytelling rather than systems of lettering to preserve their knowledge and history. In cultures of writing, knowledge becomes material, and materiality is attributed to the individual who owns or shapes it. In oral cultures, such as those of the First Nations of New Brunswick, there is no such concept of authorship. Stories are communal and passed from one generation to the next to ensure their preservation.

For the full Author Page on the Mi'kmaq, click here.


The linked Author Page contains the Mi'kmaq story "Glooscap and His Four Visitors," as well as the Maliseet story "How the Mohawk War Party Was Drowned" and the Passamaquoddy story "How the Wabanaki Confederacy Began."